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A laminar flow wing has a maximum thickness in the middle camber line. Analyzing the Navier–Stokes equations in the linear regime shows that a negative pressure gradient along the flow has the same effect as reducing the speed. So with the maximum camber in the middle, maintaining a laminar flow over a larger percentage of the wing at a higher cruising speed is possible. However, some surface contamination will disrupt the laminar flow, making it turbulent. For example, with rain on the wing, the flow will be turbulent. Under certain conditions, insect debris on the wing will cause the loss of small regions of laminar flow as well. [5] Before NASA's research in the 1970s and 1980s the aircraft design community understood from application attempts in the WW II era that laminar flow wing designs were not practical using common manufacturing tolerances and surface imperfections. That belief changed after new manufacturing methods were developed with composite materials (., graphite fiber) and machined metal methods were introduced. NASA's research in the 1980s revealed the practicality and usefulness of laminar flow wing designs and opened the way for laminar flow applications on modern practical aircraft surfaces, from subsonic general aviation aircraft to transonic large transport aircraft, to supersonic designs. [6]

Syntax . This section describes a grammar (and forward-compatible parsing rules) common to any level of CSS (including CSS ). Future updates of CSS will adhere ...

Behavioral Health. Fifteen states are using Section 1115 waivers to provide enhanced behavioral health services (mental health and/or substance use disorder (SUD) services) to targeted populations, to expand Medicaid eligibility to additional populations with behavioral health needs, and/or to fund delivery system reforms such as the integration of physical and behavioral health services. These waivers include states responding to CMS guidance issued in 2015, which describes a new Section 1115 waiver opportunity that supports states’ ability to provide more effective care to Medicaid beneficiaries with a substance use disorder, including the provision of treatment services not otherwise covered under Medicaid. For example, states may receive federal matching funds for costs (otherwise not matchable) to provide coverage for services provided to nonelderly adults residing in institutions for mental disease (IMDs) for short-term acute SUD treatment. CMS revised this guidance in November 2017.

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Calling the standard Python len function on the GroupBy object just returns the length of the groups dict, so it is largely just a convenience:

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